November 6th, 2023
In the digital age, screens have become ubiquitous, transforming the way we work, play, learn and socialise. This technological revolution offers myriad benefits, from instant access to information to global connectivity. Yet, with these advancements come potential challenges, especially when considering the mental well-being of the younger generation.
Today’s children are born into a world where swiping on a tablet is as instinctive as turning the pages of a book. However, with many experts highlighting worrying trends, it is imperative to understand the intricate relationship between screen time and children’s mental health.
Defining screen time
In its simplest form, screen time refers to the time an individual spends looking at a screen, be it a smartphone, computer, tablet or television. This includes passive consumption, like watching videos or movies, and active interaction, such as playing video games, browsing the internet or using social media.
Children, with their adaptable minds and inherent curiosity, are especially drawn to the visual and interactive aspects of screens. The vibrant colours, instantaneous responses and the vast array of content tailored to their interests often make screens more attractive than books or traditional toys.
Over the past decade, there has been a notable uptick in the screen time of children and a shift in the form of content being watched. YouTube channels, with their quick, bite-sized content, are rapidly replacing traditional children’s TV programmes. However, the platform’s ability to provide ‘the next video’ instantly, often tailored precisely to a child’s preferences using algorithms, can lead to extended viewing sessions.
While the immediate gratification and endless content may seem beneficial, the shift has sparked concerns among parents and professionals alike. The dynamic nature of digital content consumption requires us to reevaluate and redefine guidelines for children’s screen engagement.
The mental health impact of screen time
Ever-increasing screen engagement has seen more scientific scrutiny of its impacts. Numerous concerns have been highlighted, with some of the key potential downsides including:
Shortened attention span
Constant engagement with rapid-fire stimuli can condition the brain to expect high levels of stimulation. Over time, this can lead to shortened attention spans, making it challenging for children to focus on tasks that aren’t immediately rewarding or engaging.
Screen exposure, especially before bedtime, can interfere with the production of melatonin, the hormone responsible for sleep regulation. The blue light emitted from screens is a particular concern, leading to delayed or disrupted sleep patterns in children.
While the virtual world can be enriching, excessive screen time can impede the development of crucial face-to-face social skills. Babies and very young children, in particular, learn from and react to facial expressions more than words. In older children, there is a potentially increased chance of loneliness, isolation or social anxiety as children may find real-world interactions challenging.
Extended screen time often corresponds to sedentary behaviour. The lack of physical activity can contribute to a host of health issues, from obesity to musculoskeletal problems.
Babies and toddlers are in a critical development phase, and excessive screen time can affect their cognitive, linguistic and emotional development. It can delay language acquisition, reduce play opportunities, which is critical for learning and impact their ability to regulate emotions effectively. Both the World Health Organisation and the American Psychological Association recommend no screen time at all for children until 18-24 months and only one hour per day between 2 and 5 years old.
Recognising signs of screen time addiction
As screen time consumption grows, so does the potential for addiction. Many people may think of addiction as an adult condition, but children can develop TV addiction, gaming addiction and internet addiction if preventative steps are not taken. Here is what to look out for in identifying screen time addiction in children:
Loss of interest in other activities
One of the first signs of screen addiction is the loss of interest in activities that the child once enjoyed. If screens become the only source of pleasure, it may signal an unhealthy dependence.
Neglect of responsibilities
When screen time starts to interfere with daily responsibilities like homework, chores or even personal hygiene, it is a red flag that the digital world is taking precedence over real-world commitments.
Changes in behaviour
Increased irritability, frustration or anger when not using screens can indicate withdrawal symptoms, a hallmark of addiction. Secretive behaviour regarding screen usage can also be a sign and prevent parents from grasping the true extent of the situation.
Poor sleeping habits
If a child is staying up late or waking up early to watch TV or use a tablet or phone, this could point towards addictive behaviour.
An overwhelming need to be online
A compulsion to check notifications, game statuses or social media updates can be symptomatic of screen and internet addiction.
Preferring to interact with friends online rather than in person or withdrawing from family interactions to spend time on devices can indicate a problem.
Mood swings related to screen time
Noticeable mood swings associated with screen usage, such as becoming overly excited while on screens or exceptionally moody when asked to stop, can be a sign of addiction.
Understanding and recognising these signs are the first steps towards managing screen time effectively. By doing so, parents can intervene early and help establish a healthier digital balance for their children.
Strategies for managing screen time
Managing children’s screen time is crucial for their mental and physical well-being and ensuring their development and social skills are not impeded. Here are effective strategies that parents and caregivers can consider:
- Establish clear limits
Set specific time limits for screen use and be consistent with them. For example, allowing one hour on school nights and two hours on weekends can provide a clear structure for children.
- Create “screen-free” zones
Designate certain home areas, such as bedrooms and dining areas, as screen-free zones to encourage family interaction and ensure better sleep hygiene.
- Encourage other interests
Promote activities that don’t involve screens, like outdoor play, reading or family board game nights. This helps children develop various interests and skills outside the digital world.
- Be a role model
Children imitate adult behaviour, so it’s important for parents to set a positive example and model healthy screen habits.
- Use parental controls
Take advantage of parental control features to limit screen time, filter content and monitor what your child is accessing online.
- Educate about online safety
Teach children about the importance of privacy and the dangers of sharing personal information online. Make sure they understand the value of online safety.
- Schedule daily “tech breaks”
Encourage regular intervals where the child takes a break from screens. This can be after completing a level in a game or at the end of a YouTube video.
- Discuss content
Engage with your child about what they are watching or playing. This can help you understand why they enjoy certain content and open up discussions about the media’s influence.
- Monitor for red flags
Stay vigilant for any signs of screen addiction and be ready to intervene if necessary.
- Seek professional help if needed
If managing screen time becomes particularly challenging or if signs of addiction are prominent, consider seeking advice from a child psychologist or addiction specialists.
Implementing these strategies can help foster a healthy balance between screen time and other vital aspects of life, ensuring that children reap the benefits of technology without falling prey to its potential downsides.
Striking a healthy balance with screen time is pivotal in safeguarding our children’s mental well-being. By setting boundaries, encouraging varied activities and fostering open communication, parents can help mitigate the risks of excessive screen exposure. It’s about creating an environment where technology serves as a tool for learning and growth, not a detriment to health and development.
If you are struggling with addiction or want to learn more about fostering digital health, contact UKAT today. We offer expertise and resources that can enable you to strike a healthier balance with technology.
(Click here to see works cited)
- Kumar, Sudheer. “Effects of Excessive Screen Time on Child Development: An Updated Review and Strategies for Management.” NCBI, 18 June 2023, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC10353947/. Accessed 1 November 2023.
- Pappas, Stephanie. “What do we really know about kids and screens?” American Psychological Association, 1 April 2020, https://www.apa.org/monitor/2020/04/cover-kids-screens. Accessed 1 November 2023.
- World Health Organization (WHO). “Mental health.” World Health Organization (WHO), 17 June 2022, https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/mental-health-strengthening-our-response. Accessed 1 November 2023.