In our fast-paced, high-demand world, stress has become an almost constant companion for many of us. It can arise from various external and internal sources, affecting our physical and mental well-being. But is stress manageable?

stress ball being squeezed

What is stress?

To first understand stress, we need to understand the biology behind why it occurs in the first place. The body’s stress response is orchestrated by releasing stress hormones, such as cortisol and adrenaline, triggered by the brain’s perception of a threat. These hormones prepare the body for the “fight or flight” response.


Regarding human evolution, one remarkable adaptation has been our ability to respond to perceived threats swiftly. This adaptation is famously known as the “fight or flight” response and plays a pivotal role in our survival. In many respects, stress emerges as an incidental outcome of this ancient and deeply ingrained physiological mechanism.


The fight or flight response

When our ancestors confronted predatory threats, their bodies needed to react quickly and decisively to ensure survival. The fight or flight response is an automatic physiological reaction that prepares the body to either confront (fight) or escape (flight) from a perceived danger. This response is orchestrated by the brain’s amygdala, which functions as an alarm system and the hypothalamus, which communicates with the body’s autonomic nervous and endocrine systems.

What happens to your body during ‘fight or flight’?

During fight or flight, your body will go through various changes to reach the intended outcome::


  • Heightened awareness: The brain dispatches signals to amplify alertness and sharpen focus, facilitating a rapid evaluation of the threat.
  • Accelerated heart rate: The heart rate surges, pumping more blood to muscles and vital organs, priming the body for action.
  • Dilated pupils: Pupils expand to admit more light, improving visual perception.
  • Release of stress hormones: The adrenal glands discharge stress hormones like adrenaline and cortisol, supplying a surge of energy.

The role of stress during fight or flight

Stress serves as the body’s signal that a potential threat looms. The brain’s perception of a threat triggers the fight or flight response. Stress hormones surge throughout the body, priming it to either confront or evade the threat head-on.


In our modern lives, life-threatening predators are rare encounters, yet the fight or flight response endures because it still serves a purpose. In essence, the same physiological mechanisms that allowed our ancestors to survive in a hostile environment now assist us in adapting and responding to the challenges of contemporary life.

What causes stress in modern-day life?

Stress can arise from various sources, encompassing both external and internal factors. In this section, we will delve into the multifaceted causes of stress, shedding light on some common stressors that many of us encounter regularly.


External stressors:


  1. Work-related stress: The workplace becomes a hotbed of stress, with the demands of one’s job, from tight deadlines and heavy workloads to the constant pressure to perform, often proving overwhelming. Factors like job insecurity and conflicts with colleagues or superiors can intensify this stress.
  2. Financial pressures: Financial instability, mounting debts, or economic hardships can weigh heavily on the mind. The fear of not meeting financial obligations or the uncertainty of the future can lead to persistent stress and anxiety.


  1. Personal relationships:  Interpersonal dynamics, whether within families, friendships, or romantic relationships, can be a wellspring of stress. Conflicts, misunderstandings and strained relationships can be emotionally taxing.


  1. Life transitions: Major life changes, both positive and negative, can induce stress. Whether relocating to a new city, getting married, becoming a parent, or dealing with losing a loved one, the adjustment required during these transitions can be a significant source of stress.


Internal stressors:


  1. Perfectionism: Setting unrealistically high standards for yourself can lead to chronic stress. Perfectionists often experience stress when they feel they are falling short of expectations.
  2. Negative self-talk: Negative thought patterns and excessive self-criticism can perpetuate stress. These inner dialogues can magnify perceived problems and make them seem insurmountable.
  3. Health concerns: Worrying about one’s health or coping with a chronic illness can be a significant source of internal stress. Concerns about physical well-being can translate into emotional strain.


Ambiguity and uncertainty:


The unpredictability of life itself can introduce stress. Uncertainty about the future, unforeseen events, and not knowing how to deal with specific situations can trigger stress responses.


Example: Career ambiguity


Imagine being in a career where the future is uncertain. You’ve worked for years, but industry changes like automation and shifting trends have raised job security concerns. You’re still determining if your skills will stay relevant, leading to constant worries about layoffs or career shifts.


This ambiguity generates substantial stress, making you second-guess decisions, lose sleep, and feel anxious about adapting to a new path. The lack of a clear professional roadmap can lead to persistent stress, impacting mental and physical well-being.

The effects stress can have on you

Stress is inevitable, and its impact on physical and mental well-being cannot be underestimated. The effects of stress can manifest in a variety of ways. Understanding these effects is crucial for proactively mitigating stress’s detrimental impact.

Short-term symptoms of stress

Type of Effect Short-Term Effects of Stress
Physical Effects – Increased heart rate and blood pressure
– Muscle tension and pain
– Rapid shallow breathing
– Digestive issues (e.g., stomachache)
– Headaches and migraines
– Sweating and increased body temperature
Psychological Effects – Anxiety and restlessness
– Irritability and mood swings
– Difficulty concentrating and memory problems
– Racing thoughts and mental fatigue
– Insomnia or disrupted sleep patterns
– Feeling overwhelmed or out of control
Behavioural Effects – Increased consumption of caffeine or nicotine
– Overeating or loss of appetite
– Nail biting or other nervous habits
– Social withdrawal or avoidance
– Procrastination and reduced productivity
– Increased use of coping mechanisms (e.g., alcohol)

Long-term symptoms of stress

Long-term stress is categorised as chronic stress. This persistent psychological and physiological state results from prolonged exposure to stressors


Chronic stress is not typically considered a formal psychiatric diagnosis in the DSM-5. Instead, mental health professionals diagnose specific stress-related disorders or conditions that may result from chronic stress. These conditions include:


Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD):

  • Chronic stress can trigger and exacerbate GAD, a condition characterized by excessive and uncontrollable worry about various aspects of life, often without a specific cause.
  • Prolonged exposure to stressors can lead to heightened anxiety levels, which may become chronic if not managed.
  • The constant worry and tension can interfere with daily functioning and negatively impact one’s quality of life.


Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD):

  • Exposure to traumatic events, often associated with significant stress, can lead to PTSD.
  • Chronic stress can increase the risk of developing PTSD following a traumatic experience.
  • Individuals with PTSD may experience intrusive memories, flashbacks, hypervigilance and avoidance behaviour, all of which can result from the long-term impact of stress on the brain and nervous system.


Depressive disorders:

  • Chronic stress is a well-established risk factor for developing depressive disorders such as MDD.
  • Prolonged stress can disrupt the neurochemical balance in the brain, leading to changes in mood, sleep, appetite and overall emotional well-being.
  • Depressive disorders can manifest as persistent sadness, hopelessness and loss of interest in previously enjoyed activities.


Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

  • Chronic stress can exacerbate or contribute to developing IBS and intestinal sensitivity.

How to manage stress

This section will explore various practical strategies to help you cope with and reduce stress, allowing you to maintain a healthier and more balanced life.

Mindfulness and meditation 

Mindfulness meditation has been studied extensively, and evidence suggests that even short daily sessions can be beneficial for reducing stress and anxiety in some individuals. Here’s why:


Mindfulness: Mindfulness means being fully present without judgement. It heightens self-awareness, enabling calm and rational responses to stress. Integrating deep breathing and mindful meditation into daily life promotes relaxation and stress reduction.


Meditation: Regular meditation practice has lowered stress levels and improved overall well-being. Find a quiet space, focus on your breath or a mantra, and let your mind quiet. Even just a few minutes of meditation each day can make a significant difference in managing stress.

Regular Exercise

Exercise is a potent stress reducer. It releases endorphins, the body’s natural mood enhancers while decreasing stress hormone production. Aim for 30 minutes of moderate exercise most days. Find an enjoyable activity to make it a regular part of your routine.

Relaxation techniques

Relaxation techniques encompass therapeutic exercises crafted to aid individuals in reducing both physical and psychological tension and anxiety.


  • Deep Breathing: Deep breathing exercises like diaphragmatic or abdominal breathing can quickly calm the body’s stress response. Take slow, deep breaths, inhaling through your nose and exhaling through your mouth.


  • Progressive Muscle Relaxation: This technique involves systematically tensing and relaxing muscle groups in the body. It helps release physical tension and promote relaxation.


  • Guided Imagery: Guided imagery involves using your imagination to visualise peaceful and calming scenes. By mentally escaping to a serene place, you can reduce stress and promote a sense of tranquillity.

Time management

Effective time management can reduce stress by helping you organise your tasks and responsibilities. Create a to-do list, set realistic goals and prioritise your tasks. Learn to say no when necessary to avoid overcommitting yourself.

Social support

Talking to friends, family members, or a therapist can provide emotional support and perspective. Sharing your thoughts and concerns with someone you trust can help alleviate stress and provide a sense of connection.

Healthy lifestyle

Maintaining a balanced diet, getting adequate sleep and reducing the consumption of stimulants like caffeine and alcohol can all contribute to better stress management. A healthy lifestyle supports your body’s ability to cope with stress effectively.

Can UKAT London Clinic help with chronic stress?

At UKAT London Clinic, our mission is to address the enduring impact of chronic stress on your mental and emotional well-being. We understand that stress isn’t merely a transient discomfort; it can leave lasting imprints on your mental health.


Our tailored programmes acknowledge the complexity of stress-related conditions like anxiety, depression, and trauma. We believe that the journey to recovery often starts with addressing the lingering effects of stress, enabling individuals to rebuild their lives with empathy and expertise.


At UKAT London Clinic, we embody a compassionate commitment to helping you regain your mental and emotional equilibrium. Contact us today for more information.


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