Social Anxiety

You’re at a crowded party, the laughter and chatter filling the air. Everyone around you seems at ease, effortlessly blending into the night’s entertainment. But for you, it’s different. Your heart races, your palms sweat, and a gnawing fear of judgement take hold. Social anxiety is the invisible force that can turn even the most ordinary social situations into a minefield of unease.

man with social anxiety

What is social anxiety?

Social anxiety, or social phobia, is a psychological condition beyond mere shyness or nervousness in social situations. It is a pervasive and persistent fear of social interactions and situations where individuals anticipate judgement, scrutiny, or embarrassment. Here, we break down the core components of social anxiety:

Defining social anxiety

According to the DSM-V, social anxiety can be diagnosed through the following criteria. 


NOTE: Self-diagnosing is not recommended. The criteria should be used for educational purposes, and a medical professional should make a final diagnosis.


  1. Marked fear or anxiety: The primary diagnostic criterion is a marked and persistent fear or anxiety about one or more social situations in which the individual is exposed to possible scrutiny by others. Examples of such situations may include social interactions, being observed, or performing in front of others.
  2. Avoidance: The individual actively avoids or endures these social situations with intense fear or anxiety.
  3. Immediate anxiety response: In social situations, the individual experiences intense fear or anxiety, often leading to a panic attack or panic-like symptoms, such as a racing heart, trembling, sweating, blushing, or feeling nauseated.
  4. Duration: The fear, anxiety, or avoidance is persistent and typically lasts for six months or more.
  5. Significant distress or impairment: The fear or anxiety is not just a normal response to the situation, and it significantly interferes with the person’s daily life, relationships, or occupational functioning.
  6. Not attributable to another condition: The symptoms cannot be better explained by the effects of a substance (e.g., drugs or medications) or another medical condition.
  7. Not better explained by another mental condition: The symptoms are not better defined by another mental condition, such as panic disorder, body dysmorphic disorder, or autism spectrum disorder.

Prevalence: Social anxiety must not be better explained by the symptoms of another mental condition, and it is not limited to its symptoms.

Differentiating social anxiety from general anxiety

Distinguishing between social and general anxiety represents a nuanced challenge in mental health diagnosis. While both conditions share commonalities, such as excessive worry and apprehension, they diverge primarily in their focal points and triggers. Generalised anxiety disorder tends to encompass a broad spectrum of concerns, spanning various aspects of life, from work-related stress to personal relationships, often resulting in pervasive and pervasive anxiety. Conversely, social anxiety disorder is more circumscribed, centring on acute fear and discomfort in social or performance-based situations where one anticipates judgement or scrutiny from others. This unique focus often leads to specific symptoms, including blushing, trembling, or avoidance of social interactions. 


Moreover, social anxiety typically emerges in adolescence and, if left untreated, can significantly impact an individual’s social and professional life. Therefore, discerning these subtleties is paramount for accurate diagnosis and the development of tailored therapeutic interventions, underscoring the importance of a comprehensive mental health assessment.

4 Social Anxiety Facts
  • 1-Social anxiety disorder is more common among women than men
  • 2-Typically begins in childhood or adolescence, with a median onset age of around 13 years; when left untreated, it can significantly affect an individual’s life well into adulthood.
  • 3-Social anxiety ranks as the 3rd most prevalent mental health condition, preceded by substance abuse and depression
  • 4-While specific prevalence rates vary from country to country, it is consistently recognised as a common mental health condition worldwide

What are the causes of social anxiety?

Social anxiety, like many mental health conditions, arises from a combination of genetic, environmental, and psychological factors. It’s often rooted in real-life experiences and personal histories. Let’s delve into the multifaceted causes of social anxiety, using real-life examples to illustrate each point.


Genetic predisposition

Some individuals may be genetically predisposed to social anxiety. Consider a scenario where both parents in a family have a history of social anxiety, and their child shows signs of excessive shyness and avoidance of social situations from an early age. This genetic link highlights the role of heredity in social anxiety.

Childhood trauma

Traumatic or distressing experiences during childhood or adolescence can contribute to social anxiety. For instance, parental rejection and abuse (both physical and emotional) could imprint lasting emotional scars, fostering social anxiety in adulthood.

Psychological factors

Negative thought patterns and cognitive distortions play a significant role in social anxiety. Consider a young professional who constantly berates themselves internally, believing they are inherently flawed or socially inept. These self-defeating thoughts can intensify social anxiety by reinforcing a negative self-image.

Learned behaviour

Social anxiety could be learned through observing others. Picture a child growing up in a household where one parent constantly avoids social gatherings due to social anxiety. The child may internalise this behaviour, mirroring avoidance tendencies and developing social anxiety as a learned response.

When is it more than just being shy?

Social anxiety and shyness are two terms often used interchangeably to describe discomfort in social situations, but they represent distinct experiences with significant differences. At first glance, it may seem challenging to discern between the two, as both can manifest as hesitation or nervousness in social interactions. However, it is crucial to recognize that social anxiety and shyness exist on a spectrum, with varying degrees of impact on an individual’s life. 


This table aims to highlight the fundamental distinctions between shyness and social anxiety, highlighting how the latter can be mistaken for the former but carries a much heavier burden of intense fear and avoidance in social settings.

Aspect Shyness Social Anxiety
Definition A personality trait or temporary discomfort in social situations due to self-consciousness or apprehension. An anxiety disorder characterised by excessive fear and avoidance of social situations due to intense, irrational anxiety.
Occurrence Common and experienced by many people to varying degrees. Less common and often considered a psychological disorder.
Emotional State Generally involves mild to moderate nervousness or discomfort. Involves intense fear, panic, and dread in social situations.
Duration Short-term or situational, may diminish with time and exposure. Persistent and typically lasts for six months or more, impacting daily life.
Triggers Typically triggered by specific social situations or new interactions. Often occurs in a wide range of social situations, including familiar ones.
Physical Symptoms Minimal physical symptoms (e.g., blushing, sweating) if any. Pronounced physical symptoms (e.g., rapid heart rate, trembling, nausea, sweating).
Cognitive Focus Self-consciousness and worry about being judged or embarrassed. Excessive focus on negative outcomes, fear of scrutiny, and catastrophic thinking about social interactions.
Functioning in Society Shyness may cause discomfort but generally does not significantly impair daily functioning. Social anxiety can severely impact daily life, hindering relationships, work, and other aspects of functioning.
Treatment Usually, it is not treated professionally but may improve with self-help strategies or exposure therapy. Often requires therapeutic interventions such as cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), medication, or a combination of treatments.

What impacts could social anxiety have if not treated?

When left untreated, social anxiety can profoundly affect multiple facets of an individual’s life. It’s crucial to acknowledge that social anxiety is a treatable condition, and seeking assistance from a mental health professional can greatly enhance one’s well-being. Nevertheless, if left unattended, social anxiety may give rise to the following adverse outcomes:


  1. Isolation and loneliness: Individuals with social anxiety often avoid social situations, leading to isolation and a lack of social support. Over time, this can contribute to feelings of loneliness and a reduced quality of life.


  1. Limited personal and professional growth: Social anxiety can hinder personal and professional development. The fear of social interaction may prevent individuals from pursuing opportunities, such as career advancements, social activities, or educational goals.


  1. Depression: Social anxiety is often comorbid with depression. The constant fear of negative social evaluation and avoidance of social situations can contribute to developing or exacerbating depressive symptoms.


  1. Substance abuse: Some individuals may turn to substances like alcohol or drugs to cope with the distress caused by social anxiety. This can lead to substance abuse issues and further complicate mental health problems.


  1. Physical health issues: Chronic stress and anxiety can have physical health consequences, such as elevated blood pressure, gastrointestinal problems, and an increased risk of heart disease.

Missed Life Opportunities: Unaddressed social anxiety can prevent individuals from experiencing various aspects of life fully, such as making new friends, forming romantic relationships, and pursuing personal passions and interests.

Can social anxiety be treated at UKAT London Clinic?

Yes, social anxiety is treatable at UKAT London Clinic. Our evidence-based therapies, such as cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), address the root causes of social anxiety by helping individuals recognise and challenge negative thought patterns and behaviours.


UKAT London Clinic provides a supportive and non-judgmental environment for practising social skills and gradually confronting fears through exposure therapy. Medication management is also available when necessary to alleviate symptoms.


Our multidisciplinary team of mental health professionals, including therapists, psychiatrists, and counsellors, collaboratively tailor treatment plans to your specific needs. Group therapy sessions offer peer support and shared experiences, fostering a sense of community. We also incorporate holistic approaches like mindfulness and relaxation techniques to enhance treatment effectiveness. With our patient-centred approach, UKAT equips individuals with the tools and support needed to overcome social anxiety and lead fulfilling lives.

What’s next?

Take the first step towards a life free from social anxiety at UKAT London Clinic. Don’t let fear hold you back any longer. Our compassionate and experienced team is here to support you on your journey to confidence and self-assurance. Break free from the grip of social anxiety and embrace the opportunities that await you.

Contact us now to schedule a consultation and discover how UKAT can help you reclaim your life from social anxiety.

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