Mood Disorders

This comprehensive article delves into the complex world of mood disorders, offering a holistic understanding of their formation, manifestations and impact on individuals. From the low end of persistent sadness to the high end of extreme emotional highs, we explore the full spectrum of mood disorders, including their diagnostic criteria and recommended treatments. Whether you seek guidance for yourself or a loved one, we provide valuable resources and contact information for our professional assistance, ensuring you have the support you need in your journey towards mental well-being.

Mood disorders

What are mood disorders?

Mood disorders, or affective disorders, are a category of mental health conditions characterised by disturbances in a person’s mood or emotional state. These disorders can significantly impact a person’s emotional well-being, daily functioning and overall quality of life. The primary types of mood disorders include:


  • Major depressive disorder (MDD): This is characterised by persistent and severe feelings of sadness, hopelessness and a lack of interest or pleasure in activities that were once enjoyable. Other symptoms may include changes in appetite and sleep patterns, fatigue, difficulty concentrating and thoughts of self-harm or suicide.


  • Bipolar disorder: Bipolar disorder involves cycles of extreme mood changes. There are two main types: bipolar I and bipolar II. In bipolar I, individuals experience episodes of mania (elevated, often irritable mood) along with depressive episodes. In bipolar II, the manic episodes are less severe and are referred to as hypomania.


  • Cyclothymic disorder: This is a milder form of bipolar disorder characterised by cyclical mood swings that do not reach the severity of full-blown mania or depression.


  • Persistent depressive disorder (Dysthymia): This condition involves a chronic, long-term low mood that lasts for at least two years, with symptoms similar to major depressive disorder but less severe.


Other Specified and unspecified mood disorders: These categories are used when a person’s symptoms do not fit the criteria for a specific mood disorder but still cause significant distress and impairment.

What causes Mood Disorders?

Mood disorders can develop for various reasons, often resulting from a complex interplay of multiple factors. Here are some key factors that can contribute to the development of mood disorders:

Biological factors

Genetics: Family history of mood disorders can increase the risk of developing one. Certain genetic factors may predispose individuals to these conditions.

Neurochemical imbalances: Imbalances in brain chemicals, such as serotonin and dopamine, can play a role in mood regulation. Low levels of these neurotransmitters are often associated with depression, while elevated levels can be linked to manic or hypomanic states in bipolar disorder.

Psychological factors

Stress: Prolonged or severe stress can trigger or exacerbate mood disorders. High-stress events like trauma, loss, or major life changes can be particularly influential.

Personality traits: Certain personality traits, such as perfectionism or a pessimistic outlook, can increase vulnerability to mood disorders.

Environmental factors

Early life adversity: Childhood trauma, abuse, neglect, or adverse experiences can increase the risk of mood disorders later in life.

Substance abuse: The use of drugs and alcohol, particularly when it becomes chronic, can lead to mood disturbances and may trigger mood disorders.

Life events

Significant life events: Stressed induced life events. like the loss of a loved one, divorce, or financial problems can trigger mood disorders, particularly depression.


It’s important to note that the exact cause of mood disorders can vary from person to person. Often, these factors interact and a combination of genetic predisposition, environmental stressors and individual vulnerabilities, for example, contribute to the development of mood disorders.

Understanding mood disorders

Mood disorders encompass a wide range of emotional disturbances that affect a person’s overall well-being and functioning. These disorders can vary in severity, duration and the specific symptoms experienced. In this guide, we will explore the spectrum of mood disorders, from the ‘low end’ characterised by persistent sadness to the ‘high end’ marked by extreme emotional highs and intense energy. Each section provides insight into the diagnostic criteria, typical duration and recommended treatments for a specific mood disorder.

Low mood spectrum: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)

Major Depressive Disorder is a prevalent mood disorder marked by persistent low mood, sadness and emotional numbness. People with MDD often experience a range of debilitating symptoms, from sleep disturbances and guilt to reduced interest in once-enjoyable activities. This condition can have a profound impact on a person’s daily life and its diagnosis typically involves a careful assessment of specific criteria.

Criteria: Symptoms are often assessed using the SIGECAPS acronym.
  • S Sleep disturbance: Individuals with MDD often experience significant changes in their sleep patterns. This can manifest as either insomnia (difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep) or hypersomnia (excessive sleep and difficulty waking up).


  • IInterest loss: A marked decrease in interest or pleasure in activities that were once enjoyable. This is often referred to as anhedonia.


  • GGuilt or feelings of worthlessness: People with MDD may experience excessive guilt, self-blame, or feelings of worthlessness, even when there is no clear reason for such negative emotions.


  • EEnergy loss: Fatigue and a lack of energy are common symptoms of MDD. Even simple tasks can feel overwhelmingly exhausting.


  • CConcentration problems: Difficulty concentrating, making decisions, or remembering things is a common cognitive symptom in MDD.


  • AAppetite changes: Significant changes in appetite are frequent in MDD. This can result in either overeating (often leading to weight gain) or loss of appetite (often leading to weight loss).


  • PPsychomotor agitation or retardation: Psychomotor agitation refers to restlessness, fidgeting, or an inability to sit still. On the other hand, psychomotor retardation manifests as slowed movements and speech.


  • SSuicidal thoughts: In severe cases of MDD, individuals may experience thoughts of death or suicide. These can range from passive thoughts about death to active suicidal ideation.


These SIGECAPS symptoms serve as diagnostic criteria for Major Depressive Disorder. To receive a diagnosis of MDD, individuals typically must exhibit a certain number of these symptoms for an extended period and experience significant impairment in their daily lives.

Duration: Last for at least two weeks
Exclusions: Symptoms are not attributable to substances or medical conditions.
Treatment: Typically managed with psychotherapy and medication.


Adjustment Disorder

Adjustment Disorder arises in response to a specific life stressor, such as a loss, trauma, or significant life change. It is characterised by mood and anxiety symptoms, often occurring within three months of the triggering event. While this disorder is temporary and typically resolves within six months, it can still create significant distress, making timely support and treatment crucial.

Duration: Typically within three months of the stressor, resolving within six months
Treatment: Managed with supportive psychotherapy and medication targeting specific symptoms (e.g., insomnia or nausea).

Persistent Depressive Disorder (Dysthymia)

Persistent Depressive Disorder, also known as Dysthymia, represents a chronic and milder form of depression compared to MDD. Individuals with Dysthymia experience prolonged periods of low mood, often described as “baseline sadness.” These symptoms persist for at least two years, impacting their daily lives and overall well-being.

Duration: At least 2 years
Treatment: Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) is the initial treatment option, followed by medication like SSRIs if necessary.

Cyclothymic Disorder

Cyclothymic Disorder is a mood disorder characterised by alternating periods of hypomania and depressive symptoms. While less intense than full-blown mania and depression, the ongoing fluctuations in mood can still lead to significant challenges in a person’s life, necessitating proper assessment and treatment.

Duration: Persists for at least 2 years.
Treatment: Typically managed with CBT and, in some cases, mood-stabilising medications like lithium.


Hypomania represents a state of elevated mood and energy that is less severe than full-blown mania but more intense than typical happiness. Individuals with hypomania may experience increased goal-directed activities, rapid thoughts and a decreased need for sleep. Understanding and addressing hypomanic episodes are vital, as they often accompany bipolar disorders.

Criteria: Requires experiencing three or more DIGFAST criteria (see number 8 Mania below) for at least four days.
Treatment: Hypomania is often a symptom of bipolar disorders. The treatment for hypomania and the associated bipolar disorder typically involves mood stabilisers, antipsychotic medications, psychotherapy (such as CBT) and lifestyle changes. Medications like lithium or anticonvulsants may be used to stabilise mood swings. Psychotherapy helps individuals understand and manage their condition.

Bipolar 2 Disorder

Bipolar 2 Disorder falls within the spectrum of bipolar disorders and is characterised by at least one episode of hypomania and one episode of major depression. This condition requires careful diagnosis and management due to the cyclical nature of mood shifts between elevated and depressive states.

Treatment: Bipolar 2 Disorder is typically treated with a combination of mood stabilisers, antipsychotic medications and psychotherapy. Mood stabilisers like lithium are often prescribed to prevent or reduce the intensity of mood swings. Psychotherapy can help individuals manage their moods and develop coping strategies.

Bipolar 1 Disorder

Bipolar 1 Disorder is the most intense form of bipolar disorder, featuring at least one episode of full-blown mania. These episodes can also involve hypomania and major depression. The diagnostic and treatment approach for Bipolar 1 Disorder is distinct due to the extreme highs and lows experienced by individuals affected.

Treatment: Bipolar 1 Disorder is typically treated with mood stabilisers and antipsychotic medications to manage manic and depressive episodes. Medications like lithium, anticonvulsants, or atypical antipsychotics are commonly used. Psychotherapy is often a part of treatment programmes to help individuals and their families understand and manage the disorder. Lifestyle changes, including maintaining a regular sleep schedule and reducing stress, are also important treatment components.

High mood spectrum: Mania

Mania represents the pinnacle of the mood disorder spectrum, with individuals experiencing extreme emotional highs, boundless energy and a host of distinctive symptoms, as outlined in the DIGFAST acronym. Diagnosing and managing mania is of utmost importance, as it can be a defining feature of conditions like Bipolar Disorder.

Criteria: Symptoms are often assessed using the DIGFAST acronym.
  • DDistractibility: Individuals experiencing mania find it challenging to focus on a single task or topic. Their attention is easily diverted to various stimuli.


  • IImpulsivity: Manic individuals may act impulsively, making hasty decisions without considering the consequences. This can lead to risky behaviours like reckless spending or impulsive travel.


  • G Grandiosity: Grandiosity refers to an inflated sense of self-importance or unrealistic beliefs about one’s abilities and achievements. Manic individuals may have delusions of grandeur.


  • FFlight of ideas: Mania can lead to a rapid flow of thoughts and ideas, sometimes so fast that it’s difficult to keep up with one’s own thinking. This can result in incoherent speech.


  • A Activity increase: People in a manic state often exhibit a significant increase in goal-directed activities. They may become hyperactive, engage in multiple projects simultaneously, or have a reduced need for sleep.


  • SSleep disturbance: Manic episodes are often associated with a decreased need for sleep or insomnia. Individuals may feel rested after only a few hours of sleep, or they may go without sleep for extended periods.


  • TTalkativeness: Manic individuals tend to talk excessively, rapidly and loudly. They may have difficulty with speech inhibition and interrupt others frequently.


These DIGFAST symptoms are crucial diagnostic criteria for identifying manic episodes, which are characteristic of conditions like Bipolar Disorder and are distinct from the symptoms of depression or hypomania. It requires experiencing three or more DIGFAST criteria for at least one week.



Impairment: It must cause significant impairment in daily life.
Exclusions: Symptoms cannot be attributed to substances or medical conditions.
Treatment: Managed with mood stabilisers, such as lithium, to stabilise mood swings.

Do you need further help with mood disorders?

If you or a loved one are in search of expert guidance and support for mood disorders, your solution is closer than you think. At UKAT London Clinic, our dedicated team of specialists is wholeheartedly committed to delivering comprehensive care and support for all aspects of mood disorders.

Don’t hesitate to get in touch; we’re here to assist you.

Contact us today for additional information or to discuss your specific needs. Your journey towards mental health support begins here.

Works cited

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